Setup the Free TightVNC server on Ubuntu 12.04-17.04 and beyond. In general the 3-D Unity Ubuntu desktop is not available over VNC, so we use a traditional 2-D desktop environment XFCE
You must be sure that ports 5900-5999 are NOT exposed to outside world–VNC is NOT secure by itself! You must tunnel with SSH.
You can see which ports are exposed to outside world by typing:
sudo ufw status
You should see only port 22 and any other ports only if you know what they are for.
1. Install Linux VNC Server
sudo apt install tightvncserver xfce4 openbox sudo apt remove xscreensaver xscreensaver-data mkdir ~/.vnc touch ~/.vnc/xstartup chmod +x ~/.vnc/xstartup xfconf-query -c xfce4-keyboard-shortcuts -p /xfwm4/custom/'<'Super'>'Tab -r
2. Choose desktop environment
You can choose XFCE4 or Openbox (or other you prefer). Pick ONE of the following:
XFCE4 is a traditional Windows XP-like desktop environment by putting the following into
#!/bin/sh unset SESSION_MANAGER startxfce4 &
Openbox is the lightest-weight desktop environment–right click to open a menu.
Otherwise, you just have a plain grey background, extremely minimal–good for embedded system and old PCs.
If you want Openbox, put into
#!/bin/sh unset SESSION_MANAGER exec openbox-session &
3. start/restart VNC server
e.g. after rebooting, or set a crontab task to do this at reboot:
vncserver :1 -geometry 1200x700 -localhost
Kill a frozen/undesired desktop
logout of VNC from your laptop, then:
vncserver -kill :1
4. Connect from laptop
One time install on your laptop:
sudo apt install vncviewer
create a Bash script like:
#!/bin/bash ssh -f -L 5901:localhost:5901 [email protected] sleep 1; vncviewer localhost::5901
Notes on VNC
You can leave your VNC desktop running – it is not the same as your local desktop. It is a little tricky to use your local desktop reliably–I have done so with X11VNC, but it can be more trouble than it is worth! It’s MUCH easier to startup a new separate desktop session with vncserver or x11vnc
Fix non-working right-click Openbox menu
You might need to create
~/.config/openbox/menu.xml with the content
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <openbox_menu xmlns="http://openbox.org/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="/usr/share/openbox/menu.xsd"> <menu id="root-menu" label="Openbox 3"> <item label="Run Program"> <action name="Execute"> <execute> gmrun </execute> </action> </item> <separator/> <item label="Terminal"> <action name="Execute"> <execute> xterm </execute> </action> </item> </menu> </openbox_menu>
Fix missing XFCE4 VNC icons
The default XFCE4 desktop may be missing menu icons (you see black squares or red X’s).
Settings > Appearance
- Style: Xfce-4.6
- Icons: ubuntu-mono-light
- Fonts: turn hinting on if you want