Related: use setup.cfg to completely specify Python package prereqs
setup.cfg can completely
Python package prerequisites.
Proper use of
setup.cfg can reduce
setup.py to a one-liner for many Python packages.
This helps security by allowing extremely fast recursive machine-parsing of prerequisites without installing packages first.
Everyone should be specifying Python package prerequisites in
setup.cfg alone–not in
The approach described below handles obsolete Python packages that do not completely describe their prerequisites in
Enhance reliability with setup.cfg
Python packages should minimize the size of their directed dependency graph for best package longevity with minimum maintenance effort. However, the most effective use of programmer/scientist/engineer time generally comes from reusing code wherever appropriate. How do we evaluate quality of prereqs? We should expect modern Python code to include these factors:
from setuptools import setup; setup()
- continuous integration
- code coverage tests
- PEP8 compliance
- Static type hinting
Long term archiving of Python software requires direct and indirect dependencies.
This is commonly done by
pip freeze, but provides no direct sense of module hierarchy.
The techniques described below provide a detailed, zoomable hierarchical view of Python module dependencies.
Python dependency analysis
Obsolete Python package using
setup.py to specify package prerequisites generally require modules to be installed to determine their dependencies.
setup.py is recursively executed for each module to determine what modules are needed overall.
This is bad for automated security analysis, which is slowed greatly by needing to install packages that may themselves create inadvertent security risks with poor quality
Modern Python packages solve this problem by specifying the entire package configuration in
setup.py remains as a one-liner for most cases:
from setuptools import setup; setup()
setup.cfg, problems can arise where
install_requires specifies too many packages (more than strictly required to pass the CI unit test), or not enough (test fails).
Proper use of CI will usually resolve these issues before end users see them.
pipdeptree is the most practical solution working simultaneously for:
- obsolete Python 2⁄3 packages that use
setup.pyto specify prereqs.
- modern packages using only
This method assumes:
- self-test has adequate coverage to be meaningful for most users
- packages only used as convenience methods for some users are under
- strictly necessary modules are specified
- minimum Python version is specified
- CI-only requirements are specified
[options] python_requires = >= 3.6 install_requires = prereq1 prereq2 [options.extras_require] tests = pytest pytest-cov coveralls flake8 mypy
An example setup.cfg is complete for many Python packages.
The process below is targeted for packages used in “development mode” that is, not installed into
site-packages, except for a link back to the code directory.
- install prereqs
python -m pip install virtualenv
- In the Python package directory, create a new Python virtual environment, since
pipdeptreedepends on having only the analyzed package and its dependencies installed.
virtualenv testdep . testdep/bin/activate pip install pipdeptree[graphviz]
- install the package you wish to examine (and whatever dependencies it automatically installs)
pip install -e .
- Make a hierarchical dependency graph
This should be a very short tree (unless you are testing with a big package).
Try it with a simple package you’ve made, seeing if the dependency list matches what you expect from setup.cfg.
Directed Dependency Graph
Now you’re ready to create the directed dependency graph for the package. Install GraphViz by
apt install graphviz
brew install graphviz
pipdeptree --graph-output svg > dep.svg
View the SVG in your web browser or image viewer software (e.g. IrfanView).
One-click Python dependency graph
Wrap up the previous discussion and scripts in this Bash script
#!/bin/bash set -e [[ ! -z $1 ]] && cd $1 virtualenv testdep # it's OK if it already exists . testdep/bin/activate python -m pip install pipdeptree[graphviz] python -m pip install -e .[tests] pipdeptree --graph-output svg > dep.svg . deactivate eog dep.svg & # whatever your favorite image viewing program is
Other dependency graph modules
These modules are not yet ready to use in my opinion due to the deficiencies noted in each section. Hence, they are included for reference.
Note: to make Modulegraph useful, the output must be post-processed, as almost all of the output is system stdlib modules.
Modulegraph is an established, maintained tool for creating a
.dot dependency graph.
It lists extremely verbose output.
It’s necessary to post-process
.dot output with
pydot to make use of
What if we instead preemptively excluded from a list of known stdlib modules, removing say 98% of
modulegraph output from the start?
python -m pip install modulegraph
Examine a file’s requirements, creating a
python -mmodulegraph file.py -q -g > graph.dot
dot -Tsvg graph.dot > graph.svg
Snakefood is in maintenance mode. Snakefood is Python 2 only. There was a pull request to Python 3, but it was not yet incorporated.
python -m pip install hg+https://bitbucket.org/blais/snakefood