The procedure described here is for a new user to Docker. There are certainly more efficient ways to do these tasks that are perhaps less easy for less experienced Docker users. Please let us know if you have a suggested improvement suitable for novice Docker users.
Install Docker image
dockergroup and yourself to this group, to avoid needing
addgroup docker adduser $(whoami) docker
then reboot (not just logout, an actual system restart)
- install Docker on your laptop (the example here is for a Linux laptop)
snap install docker
after this step,
sudoshould no longer be required.
- try the Hello World images, which should auto-download and print a welcome message
docker run hello-world
- Search for a desired image.
Consider those images listed as “official”.
You might need to widen your terminal to 155 columns or so to render properly.
ubuntuas it’s quite popular for Docker and in general.
docker search ubuntu
- get the desired image
docker pull ubuntu
- verify the images on your computer
ubuntutakes just under 100 MB to start.
- start the Docker container on your laptop
docker run -it ubuntu
-itmeans interactive session verify the version running, it will have a
These commands are issued NOT from within the Docker container itself (open a new terminal)
- where are containers stored:
docker info | grep "Root Dir"
- How much space is Docker using altogether:
du -sh /var/snap/docker
- use previous command to find where your Docker stuff is
- list images:
docker images -a
- list containers (running and stopped):
docker ps -a
- stop a Docker container:
docker stop container_name
- start a Docker container:
docker start container_name
login to a running Docker container:
docker exec -it container_name bash
get container environment variables:
docker exec container_name env
- cleanup unused containers
docker system prune
- delete image:
docker image rm ubuntu:19.04
Configure Docker image
At least through January 2019, Travis-CI only had up to Ubuntu 16.04
dist: xenial, which does not have OpenCoarrays or other contemporary software that’s in Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic.
Travis-CI (and countless other online, server and computer resources) can use Docker images.
For research reproducability, a Docker image gives a known software state that should be usable for many years.
Interactive setup method tends to make the final image larger than using
So let’s start off by using a
Dockerfile as that helps maintain smaller images with repeatable builds.
The Docker container can be turned into a new image that is usable from Travis-CI or any other suitable Docker host.
We do not claim this Dockerfile to be optimal. Please let us know of suggested improvements.
# based on https://github.com/naftulikay/docker-bionic-vm/blob/master/Dockerfile FROM ubuntu:18.04 ENV container=docker TERM=xterm LC_ALL=en_US LANGUAGE=en_US LANG=en_US.UTF-8 # stop some annoying interactive prompts, also need "-yq" on apt-get ENV DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive # locale RUN apt-get update -q > /dev/null && \ apt-get install --no-install-recommends -yq apt-utils locales language-pack-en dialog > /dev/null && \ locale-gen $LANGUAGE $LANG # add sudo commmand RUN apt-get -yq install sudo > /dev/null # create and switch to a non-priviliged (but sudo-enabled) user, arbitrary name RUN echo "nonprivuser ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL" >> /etc/sudoers RUN useradd --no-log-init --home-dir /home/nonprivuser --create-home --shell /bin/bash nonprivuser && adduser nonprivuser sudo USER nonprivuser WORKDIR /home/nonprivuser # Git/Curl -- don't disable recommends here or you won't have Certification Authority certificates and will fail RUN sudo apt-get install -yq git curl > /dev/null # packages specific to your needs RUN sudo apt-get install --no-install-recommends -yq make gfortran libcoarrays-dev libopenmpi-dev open-coarrays-bin > /dev/null && \ sudo apt-get clean -q # latest cmake RUN git clone --depth 1 https://github.com/scivision/cmake-utils && \ mkdir -v /home/nonprivuser/.local && \ cd cmake-utils && PREFIX=/home/nonprivuser/.local ./cmake_setup.sh > /dev/null && \ mv -v /home/nonprivuser/.local/cmake* /home/nonprivuser/.local/cmake ENV PATH=$PATH:/home/nonprivuser/.local/cmake/bin # other optional installs # RUN sudo apt-get install --no-install-recommends -yq octave
- create the file above named
- build the Docker image:
docker build -t opencoarrays_fortran .
assuming you’re in the same directory as
- check the image exists, for me it was about 350 MB:
- Before committing for upload, you must invoke the container.
docker run opencoarrays_fortran
This will almost immediately start and stop, as you didn’t give it a command to run or persist.
- get the hexadecimal container ID by:
docker ps -a
the container will have an auto-assigned name like
foo_bar. Note the hexadecimal “container ID”.
upload Docker image
Once you have configured a Docker container on your laptop suitable for your purposes, you may wish to share this container and use it on other hosts such as Travis-CI. This can be done for free with DockerHub.
Once you are ready to upload the image, note the “container ID”, which is the hexadecimal number at the terminal prompt of the Docker container, under
The container hex ID must appear under
docker ps, just being in
docker images is not enough.
docker commit -m "basic fortran OpenCoarrays setup" hex_id dockerhub_username/opencoarrays_fortran
The changes to the image the container made are gathered into a new image. It may take a minute or two if your image is large. Ideally with a small image it will take only a couple seconds. The new image has not yet left your computer, it will show up under
Once uploaded, your Docker image is visible to the world by default.
- Login to DockerHub
docker login -u dockerhub_username
- Push (upload) this image.
Note this image is world-visible by default!
docker push dockerhub_username/opencoarrays_fortran
If your image is very large > 1 GB, be aware it will take a while to upload, and for the CI system to download. This is a telltale that it’s important to keep Docker images small.
Setup Travis-CI to use this image
language: minimal services: docker git: depth: 3 quiet: true env: Dimg=scivision/opencoarrays_fortran; Dname=fortran-ubuntu before_install: # Travis UID does not necessarily match 1000:1000 of Docker FIXME will Docker always be 1000:1000 - sudo chown -R 1000:1000 $TRAVIS_BUILD_DIR - docker run -d --name $Dname -v $TRAVIS_BUILD_DIR:/home/nonprivuser/travis -w /home/nonprivuser/travis $Dimg tail -f /dev/null # prepend $Dcmd to run commands inside the Docker container - export Dcmd="docker exec -t $Dname bash -c" install: # for this example, I already installed everything I need in the image previously created by the Dockerfile script: # all commands must be quoted - $Dcmd "cd build && cmake .. && cmake --build . && ctest -V"
docker execcommand is a new shell instance. So changing directories in one
docker exechas no effect on subsequent commands for example. Note the CMake one-liner in
.travis.ymlthat configures, builds and tests in one command.