HDF5 files do not have an error recovery mechanism.
There is an optional per-variable error checksum
Fletcher32, which will return an error on data corruption.
Note that checking file size alone is not an adequate check for data corruption.
Here is a non-exhaustive list of easy techniques to check for corruption in HDF5 files.
Python recursive directory of HDF5 checker
h5tester.py checks HDF5 files for corruption and optionally finds the corrupted block(s)
Command line check HDF5 files for corruption
GUI check HDF5 files for corruption
HDFview appears to use the Fletcher32 checksum to show a red question mark if corruption is detected. Another curiosity is that the Object reference is 2^32 - 1 on the corrupted variable.